William H. Timbers, New York City (Maurice N. Nessen, New York City, on the brief), for defendant-appellant.
Cornelius W. Wickersham, Jr., U. S. Atty., E.D.N.Y., Brooklyn, N. Y. (Warren Max Deutsch, Asst. U. S. Atty., Brooklyn, N. Y., on the brief), for plaintiff-appellee.
Before CLARK, Chief Judge, HINCKS, Circuit Judge, and BRENNAN, District Judge.
CLARK, Chief Judge.
This is an appeal on the merits in our now famous Johnson case, Johnson v. United States, 352 U.S. 565, 77 S.Ct. 550, 1 L.Ed.2d 593, reversing United States v. Johnson, 2 Cir.,
Johnson and four others were indicted for the crimes. The other four pleaded guilty and testified for the government at Johnson's trial. From the evidence it appears that Johnson was the instigator of the conspiracy. There was testimony that he approached coconspirator Patterson and told him about the location of two checks which they thereafter obtained when Patterson, in Johnson's presence, broke open the mailbox containing them. These checks were United States Treasury checks made out to the order of a woman payee, and the mailbox was located at her residence in a housing project in Brooklyn. Johnson and Patterson then joined the other coconspirators and helped prepare forged identification cards which were put in Johnson's wallet, together with the checks bearing endorsements forged by Gloria Mapp, one of the women coconspirators. Thereafter four of the coconspirators, including Johnson, went to a store where Mapp sought to cash the checks. The storekeeper probably was suspicious, for he gave her only a portion of the face amount of one check and promised to pay the remainder to her later. Mapp gave the proceeds to Johnson and Johnson gave them to Cleavest, another coconspirator, who purchased narcotics which were shared by all the participants. Afterwards Mapp was arrested when she returned to the store to pick up the balance of the check, and she then implicated the others.
Johnson's chief contention, presented in his counsel's opening statement, was that he was entirely innocent and that the government's witnesses would lie to implicate him in the hope of gaining leniency. This had a certain ring of persuasiveness, for admittedly Johnson had not personally broken open the mailbox or forged or cashed the checks. But he did personally participate in one of the acts of the conspiracy ? he shared its fruits; and the prosecution properly introduced evidence of this fact to show his motive in joining in the conspiracy and to tie him in with the commission of the crimes contrary to his story of innocence. United States v. Puff, 2 Cir., 211 F.2d 171, certiorari denied Puff v. United States, 347 U.S. 963, 74 S.Ct. 713, 98 L.Ed. 1106. Moreover, this proof helped to paint the entire picture of the conspiracy and thus was relevant and admissible unless otherwise objectionable. United States v. Apuzzo, 2 Cir., 245 F.2d 416, 420-421, certiorari denied Apuzzo v. United States, 355 U.S. 831, 78 S.Ct. 45, 2 L.Ed.2d 43.
Sharing in the fruits of the conspiracy here involved the commission of a separate crime ? illegal use of narcotics; and Johnson now argues for the first time that this evidence was so highly prejudicial in relation to its relevancy that it was reversible error to admit it. United States v. Krulewitch, 2 Cir.,
We are particularly indebted to court-assigned counsel for loyal assistance to the court and brilliant presentation of the case, both in the former proceedings and here. Defendant has had the benefit of able advocacy of the highest order. The meticulous care which his case has had should carry assurance that his conviction is just.
This document cites
- US Code - Title 28: Judiciary and Judicial Procedure - 28 USC 1915 - Sec. 1915. Proceedings in forma pauperis
- U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit - United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Salvatore Apuzzo, Defendant-Appellant., 245 F.2d 416 (2nd Cir. 1957)
- U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit - United States of America, Appellee, v. Ada Volkell, Defendant-Appellant., 251 F.2d 333 (2nd Cir. 1958)
- U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit - United States v. Puff., 211 F.2d 171 (2nd Cir. 1954)
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